Marine And Offshore Insight: 2016


Saturday, August 27, 2016

25 Navigation exam question and answers you may like to know.

Below are 25 list of  passed Navigation  exam question and answers you will like to know. This can help your career exams, mainly for the deck officers. since no knowledge is for granted, i recommend engine officers to take time to study these questions, as you may come across them some day.

Ship Navigation
Ro - RO vessel

Q1 ) Rigging of the pilot ladder & embarkation/disembarkation of a pilot should be supervise by who?
A1) A responsible officer

Five Important ways to maintain pilot ladder to avoid accidents or loss of life at sea

Q2)  How often should operational checks on navigation equipment be done?
A2) Regularly, when preparing for sea & entering port.

Q3)  If possible a vessel’s position should be plotted by bearings of :
A3)  Fixed known objects on the shore

Q4)  Can RNC charts be used for voyage planning?
A4) Only in conjunction with paper charts

Q5) Can voyage planning be executed on ECDIS ?
A5) Only if approved by the flag state

Q6) What is important to check when transferring a position from GPS to a chart?
A6) Ensure that the chart and the GPS use same datum

Q7) When steering by autopilot, how often should manual steering be checked?
A7) At least once a watch

6 Things To Do During Preparation For Sea Voyage

Q8) Should recommended route information be used in conjunction with weather routing?
A8) The answer is YES

Q9) When using a buoy as an aid to navigation, what do we always need to considered?
A9) The buoy may not be in its charted position

Q10) When taking a compass error by amplitude in the higher latitudes when is the best time to take the bearing?
A10) The best time is to calculate the time of the sunset and then take the bearing

20 Deck Marine COC And Interview Questions + Answers You May Know.

Q11) In celestial navigation the angle measured westward from the first point of aries to the hour circle of the body along the celestial equator is known as what ?
A11)  Sidereal hour angle

Q12) What kind of information can be achieved from a NAVTEX?
A12) Navigational warning

Q13) What is a RSC ( rescue sub-centre)?
A13) A unit subordinate to a rescue co-ordinating centre.

Q14) When will we notice the effect of shallow water?
A14) When under keel clearance is 50% or less

Q15) You are to turn your vessel in a narrow canal by use of two tugs with the same power. The wind varies in the range moderate/strong. Where/how would you use the tugs?
A15) Pushing, made fast in the vessel

Q16) A ship is not turning around the center of gravity, but another point. What is the point called?
A16) Pivot point

Q17) You are about to pass another ship in a close situation. What can happen in this situation?
A17) Due to suction, the two ships will be sucked together 

Q18) Overshoot is an expression we use when talking about a ship’s steering ability. What is the best way to determine how the overshoot is on your ship? 
 A18) Do a 20/20 degrees zig-zag manoeuvre 

Q19) What is the correct definition of a bollard ?
A19) A remedy which the mooring lines are made fast

Q20) what is the correct definition of boat deck?
A20) The deck for the lifeboats.

Q21) You are approaching a port when you see three flashing red lights in a vertical line at the entrance. What does this indicate?
A21) Serious emergency – all vessels to stop or divert according to instructions

Q22) What is the fog signal for a vessel which is engaged in towing?
A22) One long blast followed by two short blasts at intervals of not more than two minutes.

Q23) What is the fog signal for vessel of more than 100 meters in length when at anchor?
A23) A rapid ringing of the bell forward followed by the gong aft for about 5 seconds at intervals of not more than 1 minute.

Q24) what is the fog signal for a vessel which is not under command ?
A24) One prolonged blast followed by two short blasts at intervals of not more than two minutes.

Please you can subscribe with our blog for more list... up next will be more questions from the engine room side. 

We also urge our readers to kindly leave comments or contribution to enlighten  knowledge to others. Thanks for your supports.    

Sunday, August 7, 2016

20 Deck Marine COC And Interview Questions + Answers You May Know.

marine & offshore insight
 Maritime career been a profession in which everyone must attend exams to move to the upper rank, you need to always ready yourself on some questions that may arise during your exams or interviews.

  On this article, We will like to share some of the marine COC (Certificate Of Competency) or marine interview questions you will likely meet.

Q1) Can you use same common vapor line for sulphuric acid and Nitric acid ?
A1) The answer is "NO" this is because they are not compatible.

Q2) The lowest temperature at which a liquid will give off sufficient vapors to form a flammable  mixture with air should be identify as what?
A2) The flash point.

 Q3) The quantity of a cargo required to be carried in a type one ship should not exceed what level?
A3) It shouldn't exceed 1250 m3

Q4) Possibly your vessel get to pass through suez canal ,what is the status on suez canal pilots?
A4) The status is that pilotage is compulsory & the pilot is only the master's advisor

Q5) Your vessel is moving in panama canal waters, when must the master or representative be on the bridge?
A5) The master or his or her representative must be on bridge at all times.

Q6) Does most piracy attacks take place in international or territorial water?
A6) It is confirmed that most attacks take place in the territorial waters.

Q7) What is most important when transferring route plans to other Navigational systems ?
A7) Need that both systems use same chart datum

Q8) In navigation, what is the shortest distance between two points ?
A8) Great circle is the shortest distance of two points.

Q9) What is the purpose of the function Anti sea clutter on the radar ?
A9)  The purpose is to reduce reduce the sea echoes

Q10) When using a buoy as an aid to navigation, which of the following should always be considered
A10) We consider the buoy many not be in its charted position.

Q11)  When taking a compass error by amplitude in the higher latitudes, when is the right time to take the bearing?
A11) After calculating the time of the sunset, then take the bearing.

Q12) what kind of information can be achieved from a NAVTEX ?
A12) Navigational warning

Q13) What is the name of the IMO publication giving guidance in search and rescue operations at sea ?
A13) Publication called MERSAR

Q14) If you are a second deck officer onboard a vessel, during the night you have been in a collision with a sailing boat and saw there are no signs of life in the water, what will be your action?
A14) Without delay, you need to alarm the rescue center & commence searching for available survivors.

Q15)  What is the centre for overall co-ordination of rescue operations called?
A15) Rescue co-ordination centre.

Q16)  You are officer on watch an you received a distress signal from another ship/vessel, who should you first inform?
A16) You need to inform the nearest coastal radio station.

Q17) If you are a duty officer onboard a ship that was involved in a collision. what will your actions be following the collision ?
A17) You will make sure that your ship with the crews onboard are safe and then offer your assistance to the other ship involved.

Q18) During search and rescue operations, an aircraft crosses the wake of your vessel close astern at low altitude. As officer on duty, what does this indicate if the aircraft rocks its wings opens and closes the throttle or changes the propeller pitch?
A18) This signal indicates that your assistance is no longer required.

Q19) Name one of the methods used by an aircraft to attract a vessel's attention for participation in a rescue operation?
A19) She circle the vessel

Q20)  Your ship is making sternway of about 1.6 knots and your rudder is hard to starboard. will this have any effect on the ship's behavior?
A20) Yes , it will give the stern a lift force to starboard.


What is the search pattern system called where 1 ship and  1 aircraft are involved?

Past COC question
academic questions
photo from deck officer Facebook page ( only for sharing)

Sunday, July 31, 2016

SHIP JOBS - for seafarers

Marine and offshore insight , we are here to help seafarers in knowledgeable information which will help their future career.

PLEASE NOTE: the scam agencies are now online, searching for crews who will fall into there net. please do not make any payment of visa , crewing fee or as will be requested by the scammers. If you need to make any payments, be it crewing fee or others, avoid doing it online or to whom you don't know his or her location address. 

You can subscribe with our blog, as we will continue to bring you links of recommended crewing agencies all over the world.


You can always place your comments about any company or crewing agent whom you think is a scam. for others to be very careful.


TO SUBMIT YOUR CV : click here



Friday, July 22, 2016

Poor Nigeria Seafarers’ Salary As Major Obstacle to Cabotage Act by 2nd engineer( Oliver )

On this article we are going to look into the difficulties which the Nigerian seafarers are facing in regards of the salaries and jobs.

  Oliver Okeke , is one of the Nigerian seafarers by rank 2nd engineer. he made a large points on how the poor Nigerian seafarer's salary as major obstacle to 2003 cabotage act .  The Cabotage  law which was passed into law in the year 2003 , which primarily states that "All commercial transportation of goods and services within Nigerian coastal and inland waters to vessels flying the Nigerian flag, crewed by Nigerian seafarers and owned by persons of Nigerian citizenship."

On that act, Oliver narrated how this act was not favorable to many Nigerians due to improper attention to it. below are the points he made, which in the international community, is not done that way.:

"Four pillar requirements for a Vessel to participate in Cabotage trade are: (i) The Vessel must be owned by Nigerian citizens, (ii) The vessel must be crewed by Nigerian seafarers, (iii) The vessel must be built in Nigeria and (iV) The vessel must be registered in Nigeria. However, a waiver allows Foreign-Owned Vessels to be eligible for participation in the Cabotage trade where Nigerians cannot meet up with the four pillar requirements. Foreign owned vessels are required to obtain this waiver and a licence for participation in coastal trade (cabotage) from the Minister of Transport"


"All of these requirements can be easily available and obtainable in Nigeria with the exception of #3 [Ships Built in Nigeria], reason being that Nigeria currently do not have adequate capacity ship building yard. We only have ship repair yards and Nigerdock, the biggest of them, only currently build small capacity vessels. #1 requirement [Ships owned by Nigerian citizens] should not be a big problem judging from Nigeria, as a country, being an ‘Oil Rich Nation’ and many of her citizens carrying big names in and outside the country as Millionaires and Billionaires, though corruption and Political instability do not allow them.
Nigerian Seafarers are trying in #2 Requirement [Crewed by Nigerians]. Though faced with the major problem of not having an indigenous Maritime Institution accredited to award higher Competency Certificates (CoC) and no government training scholarship, many still struggle on their own to obtain CoC in countries of Europe, America and Asia. As I write this, there are sufficient number of Nigerian seafarers qualified to international standard which will be enough to fill #2 Requirement of 2003 carbotage Act. However, most of these Officers prefer to stay abroad and work due to Poor salary which is often offered to them by Nigerian Companies simply because they are Nigerians. These Nigerian Maritime companies prefer to employ lower certificated foreigners and pay them high amount of dollars while paying higher qualified Nigerian seafarers salary barely enough to survive them.
Fresh school graduates (Cadets) are worst hit by the poor salaries paid by these companies. Nigerian Maritime companies no longer employ Cadets [NIMASA and Government should please do something about this. If you don’t train Cadets, how do you expect to get officers to fill the industry in the future] and where they are employed, they are paid only 20k Naira per month (convert it to dollar please because training is in dollars) without a plan or promise to sponsor them for their CoC. These Cadets now “struggle” to get employed as Motorman(Oiler) and Able Seaman(AB) where they are paid 40K to 60K Naira

With this rate of salary, they find it very difficult to save money, and with the increasing number & cost of safety and security training/certificates required by IMO for maritime/shipboard employment, to go to school and write their first certificate (OOW) which is required for progression and to fill in the future maritime industry manpower. These cadets have to struggle for about 5 to 6 years to be able to go to school and write their 1st CoC. From 1st CoC to 2nd CoC and to Chief/Master CoC it is the same story because of poor salary.."


The truth about it all is that "Most Nigerian maritime companies prefer to employ foreigners and pay them huge amount of dollars (e.g. Nigerian Captain: 500K naira = 2500USD, Foreign captain: 6000 to 10000USD). This they do because they believe that foreigners will be more hardworking and will better protect their investment. What they do not know is that an equally certificated Nigerian, if paid the same amount of money, or even three quarter the amount, will work harder than the foreign counterpart and will protect that investment more because you know him up to his village and know his village chief.
I worked in a company where this Chief engineer, who earns more than 30000USD per month, will wear coverall (working cloth) from morning till the next morning, every day, 24hours. Most times, he will go under an engine, smear his coverall with grease just to show that he is working and to justify his salary. Even his fellow expatriates, who are paid lower salaries will laugh and talk about him, but at his back. Pay a Nigerian Engineer half of that salary, you will see productivity."

To me this man made a very big points, in which NIMASA have to work on. because that is what they are there for. please if you support this post,  place your comments and share it to reach the DG of NIMASA. thanks.

 Linkin Oilver Okeke post.
Photo by a Nigerian officer.

for any request or questions, please contact us via email or place your comments below . Thanks for sharing . 


Tuesday, July 19, 2016

6 Things To Do During Preparation For Sea Voyage

A ship is used to denoted a vehicle employed to transport goods and persons from one poet to another over waters. In the world today, oil storage vessels which is use to carry products in bulk plays a major role in the oil and gas industries, also contributing in world energy growth.

marine offshore insight
ship crew
In this article ,  we are going to quickly list some important things ship crew should do during preparation of sea voyage, as it will also help the ship and her crew in reaching their port of call safely.   In preparation of sea voyage, the crew incharge need to follow below  produces  in other to meet up with the rule and regulations which also contribute to their safety :

1. All manifold and cargo holes : it's advice to blind flanges all the manifolds with fully bolted . This is to stop any line contents from flowing out due to the ship hogging and sagging . in the other hands all cargo holes or tank covers must remain fully close and tightened.

2. Cargo Samples : all cargo and bunker samples are to be stored safely in the designated sample store or box locker. in tankers and other ships, storage of flammable liquid are not advice to be kept in ship office or in the accommodation area, as this may cause fire.

3. Tank Alarms  : In tanker ship, it's advice to have the tank alarm systems switched off. This is due to hogging and sagging during sailing, as the cargo will always flow up and down. but note, other alarms should be on ( check your ship instruction book).

4. Hose and ropes : If time permits before casting off the jetty or anchorage, it's advice to make sure that all loading hoses and ropes are disconnected and kept in the proper position. In case of tanker ships, if the ship hose have been used, these hose should be cleaned and thereafter fitted with blind flanges. This will help in easy use, safe,etc during arrival to the next port.

5. Cargo holes closure and opening : Make sure that all tank and/or cargo hatches butterworth, etc.

6. P/V valves : The valve setting should be in accordance with C.O.F

  Photo from a ship crew.

Sunday, July 17, 2016

10 Important Things To Take Note Before Commencement & Execution Of Cargo Operations In Tanker

LNG Tanker ship
It’s agreed that in chemical and oil tankers, there are numerous hazards involved. Therefore it’s very important to exercise good safety precautions during all kinds of cargo  operations.  On this article , we are going to look into ten important things you need to do, in other to have a safe and splendid cargo operation ( Loading or discharging).

Firstly , before commencement of loading or discharging , you must make sure that all valve settings and lines on all tanks has been checked one more time, to avoid failure or  leakages.   If in case of loading, the officer in charge must make sure that he or she certified  with the cargo system readiness and all the information of the cargo has been received.  In addition, the 10 precautions listed below should be observe in other to guide you more :

1.    Make sure that the grade & quantity of the cargo to be receive has been agreed with the other party.

2.    Take note of the loading rate and agree with the other party on the what rate to start or stop with.

3.    It’s important that all ship crews who are involve on the loading operation, must be ready before commencement.

4.    Check for your company loading or discharge safety checklist, complete them as required.
5.   It’s also important to check your tank low and high level alarms and make sure they are in operational.

6.       Make sure maintain the cargo log i.e ( time & date of each event).

7.    In each tanks, you must maintain ullage space to allow for heating cargo as required by the shipper.

8.  The officer on duty must make sure that tanks that are topped off are properly isolated from other tank.

9.  In about 90% of the loading operation, the officer on duty must notify the other party  to reduce rate , to enable you stabilize the cargo or maintain other requirements.

10. In every loading operation, an experienced deck officer must be on watch , to monitor and make sure the operation was successful and safe.

Friday, July 15, 2016

4 Types of tanker ships and purposes they serve

In the early years of oil and gas transportation, the oil was carried in barrel in conventional cargo vessel. The majority of chemical carries are petroleum and natural gas, while others are made for coal or coal gas and carrying passengers as well. But today, all of these vessels has been modernized in such a way that every ship are built to it purpose.

On this article ,  we will like to list and analyze in summary the types of tanker ships we have presently and there built purposes. In recent age, tanker ships are divided into four types and which some maritime students do hear about them, but probably will like to know little understanding about them. Below are listed types of tanker ship,there purpose and proportion type.

Four Types Of Tanker Ships

1.       Gas Tanker: This type of ship falls into two main divisions according to the two main cargoes concerned i.e ( Liquefied natural gas & Liquefied petroleum gas carriers ) . they are built with double hull in which the inner one are either box or cylindrical shape , while the side tankers can serve as ballast tanks which stabilize the ship. These type of ship uses stem engine for proportion.

2.       Oil Tanker: there are also two types on this category of ship, i.e ( crude oil and product tankers). They have two longitudinal bulkheads which run through the entire length of the cargo space, providing three athwart ship compartments.  The pump room are been place forward of the engine room which enables fast and high discharge rate of the cargo. They use motor engine (diesel engine )for proportion.

3.       Combine Tanker : Combination tankers are type of tankers designed to carry both dry and liquid bulk cargoes . these cargoes are ranging from Oil, bulk, ore and oil/ore. Also been propel by motor engines.

4.       Bitumen Tanker: this type of ship is specifically built to handle the produce of at high temperature. The construction or arrangement are done in such a way they are built to carry double bottom and wing tanks to isolate the bitumen from the shell, and attached with more elaborate heating  coils or tubes than in a normal tankers. They are also propel by motor or stem engines.

Tanker lectures
Engr Emma
Photo collection and edited via internet  

Thursday, July 14, 2016

Malow Navigation is looking A/B FOR AHT EMS

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Experience:Less than a year of exp.

Contract type:Long term contract

Start date:ASAP


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You can view more details at



Tuesday, July 12, 2016

Five important safety measures you need to know onboard ship.

First of all, i will like to give the meaning or definition of the word SAFETY.  The word safety "is a condition of being protected safely from or unlikely to cause danger, risk, or injury"

Everybody who newly join the ship, always wish to work and earn safely, but in some cases, you will find such person, placing his or her self on high risk while working(probably no safety officer around or wish to be free) . Always remember that, everyone onboard the ship are trained safety officer ; meaning you need to act to a direction in which you and your crew members will be safe.

On this article , we are going to list  five important ways in which ship crews most maintain safety onboard without waiting for any safety officer to correct or report you. But before i list them, i will like to give some live story of newly joined 4th engine.

 " the first day this young man joined the vessel, he went to the captain to submit his documents as been done onboard by regulations , then what captain asked this young man was ' what is fire triangle ' he tried to answer the question but behold  after 3 days onboard, during sailing,there was an emergency in engine room where everyone was busy and  the 3rd engineer sent him and cadet to open lube oil filter of the generator that just shutdown. Since the engine was just stopped, the 4th engineer was expected to put all safety precautions(putting on required PPE)  in place before opening , but he tried to open a hot filter without hand gloves, checking for pressure build up, etc and even the cadet remained him to open drain to check for pressure, but he didn't take the advice.... he opened and pressure was pushing out  very high in which hot oil started spreading to the exhaust of the other running generators , and in such condition, he left the cadet who was holding the cover ( trying to tight back) and ran to his cabin to change coverall "  No safety, and placing other lives at risk.
crew safety
Watch keeper

what are the five ways to maintain safety onboard?

1)  Put on your personal protective equipment (PPE)

2) Always check line pressures before you open any close space

3) Vent any in close space before entering

4) Read instructions very carefully before using any equipment onboard

5)  Check for expiration dates  before using any drugs, food, etc.

Saturday, June 25, 2016

5 important things seafarers must consider before bringing their wife onboard.

In shipping industries,  crews onborad are not allow to bring their family (wife)  onboard due to some certain reason,  but in the other hands,  some shipping companies do allow only the top 4 officers (Captain, Chief engineer, Chief mate, 2nd Engineer) to bring their wife onboard ship at Port or even sail with them.
Since life at sea is not eating bread & tea,  there's need to consider some points,  in other to avoid accidents or loss of life. On this article,  we are going to list at least five important things you need to consider while bringing your wife or family onboard.

1. SAFETY PRECAUTIONS : Since ship is not just a working place but also a floating object, in other to bring your family onboard,  you must make sure they understand the mean reason why they should follow all ship safety precautions,  while you need to take time to explain them one by one.

2. FOOD SELECTION : In many cases,  some people are very selective in terms of food and water.  This is actually due to there body system or recommendations from the doctor.  In this case,  as a seafarer who like to bring your wife onboard,  you must make sure she do not select food or waters... But if she does,  there's need to personal provide those things she likes to eat to avoid over stressing the cook onboard or putting other crews on inconvenience.

3. BODY REACTION : As I have mentioned earlier,  ship which is a floating vessel has another effects like sea water odor .  Not everybody's are comfortable with the sea odor therefore you must be sure that her body reactions to the sea odor is normal.

4. RESPONSIBLE  : Seafarers are very responsible fellow, therefore their wives must also be very responsible,  in other to meet up with the onboard behavior.  Otherwise you may loss your relationship while onboard.

5. DRESSING : Ship are mainly men who works on her,  therefore before your wife leaves home to ship,  she must know better on what type of dressing she must put on,  while onboard ship.  It has happened where captain was tempted with his chief mate wife dressing and got no option than to mess up the relationship.  So it is very important to take note.  Do not put other crews in temptation.
These are authors view,  but you can contribute more on the comment box below.  Thanks.


Ship type :
Container Ship
Joining date:
Duration of contract :
6 +/- 1
Requirements :
~Most have sea experience on any type of vessel,  same rank.
~Good English
Send your resume / Application to :
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Thursday, June 23, 2016

What is the difference between purifier and clarifier?

In shipping industries,  we do make use fuel (bunker)  for propulsion and electric energy /power .  Since we are surrounded by water and our bunkers been saved in a tank surrounded by water too,  there's tendency of us having water and sludge into our fuel (bunkers).  On this article,  we are going to look into the difference between purifying and clarifying
How can we remove these waters?
In every ship,  purification plant are been installed and these plants are meant to separate water from fuel,  as well as impurities.
Now to explain more on the process, when two liquids of different densities are separated using a centrifuge, this equipment is known as a purifier, but when the same centrifuge is used to separate solid(sludge) impurities from the fuel, it is called a clarifier.
Actually a purifier also removes solids(sludge) from the fuel to some certain level , and a clarifier also removes water from the fuel, but it is advised to use both purifiers and clarifiers for complete purification of the fuel.
What is the Clarifier working process?
A clarifier works as a back up system if one feels that purifier has not completely removed dissolved solid impurities from the fuel.
What is the purifier working process?
Purifiers have a dam ring that works to create a line of separation between fuel and water. However, in clarifiers, instead of a dam ring, a sealing ring is used that prevents water and dissolved impurities to remains inside the bunker tank.
However, in our modern time,  these two processes are being installed in one plant, to create more free space in ship engine room.
Reference :
Difference between, 
Engr Emma,

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